Ethiopia was never colonised, maintaining it's independence during the "scramble for Africa" until the Italian military occupation which was achieved through the use of mustard gas, Italian and colonial manpower, and superior firepower.
During this period, the Italians merged the country with Eritrea and Italian Somaliland to form Italian East Africa and despite continued guerilla attacks, Abyssinia (as Ethiopia was called then) was not able to relinquish itself of Italian control until the allies pushed them out with the help of colonial troops.
The modern capital, Addis Ababa, is situated in the foothills of Mount Entoto at an elevation of around 2,400 metres (8,000 ft), and experiences a healthy and pleasant climate year-round.
With such temperatures, the seasons in Addis Ababa are largely defined by rainfall, a dry season from October to February, a light rainy season from March to May, and a heavy rainy season from June to September.
It has long been an intersection between the civilizations of North Africa, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world.
In the long and disturbed history of the African continent, Ethiopia remains the only country which has never been colonised (except for a brief occupation by Italy during World War II).
The town of Dallol, in the Danakil Depression in this eastern zone, has the world's highest average annual temperature of 34°C (93°F).
A high plateau with a central mountain range divided by the Great Rift Valley, arid low lands in the east and lush riverine lowlands in the westernmost parts.